First, knowledge and understanding of the important information and evidence of a place and time appropriate to the course.
Second, knowledge and understanding of the proper chronological sequence of events and developments appropriate to a course in the form of narrative.
Third, the ability to recognize, explain and evaluate cause and effect.
Fourth, skill in the analysis of a culture, that is, to take a whole, which is not immediately knowable, and divide it into categories which can become knowable. An example of such categorizing is dividing a past society into economic, political, social, religious, and intellectual components and then describing the interrelatedness of those components.
Fifth, the ability to compare and contrast one specific culture of the past with another.
Sixth, the ability to read critically, think clearly, and to express knowledge in writing (through clear and concise essays for the most part) and through speaking.
First, instruct students in the nature of historical evidence (which includes complex events) and the nature of historical sources and resources.
Second, teach the power of historical reasoning including the narrative and the importance of chronology.
Third, instruct students in the complex relations of cause and effect.
Fourth, develop skills in understanding a specific period of the past through the analysis of change and continuity within context and the synthesis of diverse data.
Fifth, compare different cultures and civilizations.
Sixth, develop a students ability to read critically, think clearly, and to express her or his understanding through speaking and writing.